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Understanding Land Measurement Units in India

India’s land measurement units are as diverse as its culture and geography. Due to the country’s vast size and regional variations, different parts of India use different land measurement units.

If you’re planning to invest in real estate in India, it’s essential to have a good understanding of the local land measurement units. Be it the bustling cities of North India or the serene landscapes of South India, each region has its unique measurement units that reflect its historical and cultural contexts.

So, let’s take a closer look at the commonly used land measurement units in different regions of India.

Land Measurement Units in India

Difference Between Ground and Plot

To avoid confusion in discussions related to land measurement and administration, it’s important to differentiate between two commonly used terms in real estate: ground and plot.

In real estate, a plot refers to a specific piece of land with defined boundaries and dimensions, typically reserved for a particular purpose, such as residential or commercial development. Plots can be bought, sold, or leased for construction projects, and their sizes can vary significantly depending on the intended use and local regulations.

Meanwhile, ground is a unit of land measurement frequently used in some regions of India, particularly in Tamil Nadu.

Unlike a plot, the ground is simply a unit of measurement rather than a distinct piece of land with specified boundaries. It’s often used as a standard unit for assessing the land area, especially in urban and suburban areas where properties are often divided into smaller parcels for development or sale.

Measurement Units Used in Various States

Measurement Units Used in Various States

Land measurement units in India vary widely across regions, reflecting local traditions, historical practices, and administrative preferences. A myriad of units is used to quantify land area.

Terms like Bigha, Guntha, Katha, and Cent hold significance in specific states or districts, with each unit differing in size and conversion factors.

North India

In certain northern Indian states like Punjab, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana, land measurement units like Bigha, Biswa, and Killa are commonly used.

The size of a Bigha may differ depending on whether it is “Pucca” or “Kachha,” indicating settled or unsettled land.

Moreover, terms like Kanal and Biswansi are used to represent specific land areas, reflecting local customs and administrative practices.

UnitStates Used inConversion
1 Bigha-PuccaBihar, Punjab, Haryana, parts of UP3025 sq yd, 1 Pucca-Bigha = 165 ft * 165 ft
1 BighaParts of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand1,210 sq yd
1 Bigha-KachhaSome parts of Punjab, Haryana, UP1008.33 sq yd
1 Biswa-PuccaUpper parts of UP, Punjab, Haryana151.25 sq yd
1 BiswaSome parts of HP, Uttarakhand48.4 sq yd
1 Biswa-KacchaLower parts of Punjab, Haryana, UP50.417 sq yd
1 BiswansiUP, Punjab, Haryana, HP, Uttarakhand1/20 Biswa. 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis
1 KillaParts of Haryana, Punjab4840 sq yd (An Acre is also known as Killa)
1 GhumaonSome parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab4840 sq yd
1 KanalHaryana, Punjab, HP, Jammu and Kashmir5445 sq ft. 8 Kanals make 1 Acre

South India

South India, which includes states like Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh, employs distinct land measurement units such as Ankanam, Cent, Ground and Guntha.

These units often have specific dimensions, such as Guntha, measuring 33 feet by 33 feet.

UnitStates Used inConversion
1 AnkanamParts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka72 sqft, 1 Acre=605 Ankanams
1 CentTamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka435.6 sq ft
1 GroundParts of Tamil Nadu2400 sq ft
1 GunthaAndhra Pradesh and Karnataka1089 sq ft
1 KunchamAndhra Pradesh484 sq yd, 1 Kuncham=10 cents

East India

The eastern states of India, including West Bengal, Bihar, and Assam, use land measurement units such as Chatak, Kattha, and Lecha.

These units, steeped in local traditions, symbolize not just land areas but also cultural identities.

For example, the Kattha, frequently used in Bengal, differs in size from its equivalents in other states like Bihar and Assam.

UnitStates Used inConversion
1 ChatakWest Bengal45 sq ft
1 DecimalWest Bengal48.4 sq yd, 1 Acre=100 Decimals
1 DhurBihar and Jharkhand27.2 sq ft
1 KatthaAssam2880 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Assam) has 5 Katthas
1 KatthaBengal720 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Bengal) has 20 Katthas
1 KatthaBihar1361.25 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Bihar) has 20 Katthas
1 LechaAssam144 sq ft, 20 Lechas is 1 Kattha

West India

Moving to western states of India like Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Maharashtra, land measurement units such as Bigha and Biswa are common.

However, these units may have distinct variations, such as the Pucca Bigha in Bihar and parts of Rajasthan, compared to the Bigha in Gujarat.

UnitStates Used inConversion
1 Bigha-PuccaBihar, some parts of Rajasthan3025 sq yd, 1 Pucca-Bigha = 165 ft * 165 ft
1 BighaGujarat1936 sq yd, 1 Bigha = 132 ft * 132 ft
1 Biswa-PuccaUpper parts of Rajasthan151.25 sq yd
1 BiswaLower parts of Rajasthan96.8 sq yd
1 BiswansiRajasthan1/20 Biswa. 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis
UnitStates Used inConversion
1 BighaParts of Madhya Pradesh1333.33 sq yd
1 KatthaMadhya Pradesh600 sq ft, 1 Bigha (MP) has 20 Katthas

Central India

Central India, which includes states like Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, employs unique land measurement units.

The Bigha and Kattha are commonly used to measure land parcels in these regions.

However, the dimensions and conversions of these units may differ from those in other regions, underscoring the regional diversity in land measurement practices.

Land Measurement Units Conversion

Biswa into Acres

First, let’s understand the conversion factor:

  • 1 Biswa is approximately equal to 0.03099 acres.

Now, let’s calculate:

5 Biswa x 0.03099 acres/Biswa = 0.15495 acres

So, 5 Biswa of land is equivalent to approximately 0.15495 acres.

Administrators of Land Measurement in India

In India, various officers have crucial roles in land measurement and administration. The Tehsildar is a revenue administrative officer responsible for a tehsil, an administrative division within a district.

They are responsible for land revenue administration, including land measurement, collection of land revenue, and maintenance of land records. The general public often contacts them for land-related issues.

  • The Naib Tehsildar, also known as the Deputy Tehsildar, assists the Tehsildar in administrative and revenue matters at the tehsil level. They supervise revenue collection, land surveys, and maintenance of land records within their jurisdiction.
  • Revenue Inspectors, also referred to as Patwaris or Lekhpals in some regions, are field-level revenue officials responsible for maintaining land records, conducting surveys, and verifying land ownership. They play a crucial role in updating land records, resolving land disputes, and ensuring accurate land measurements.
  • The Patwari is a village-level revenue officer responsible for maintaining and updating land records at the grassroots level. They conduct surveys, demarcate land boundaries, and keep records of land transactions within their assigned area. Patwaris play a significant role in resolving land disputes and facilitating land-related transactions for the local population.

These officers work together with higher-level authorities to ensure effective land administration, accurate land measurement, and maintenance of land records. Their roles are essential to the smooth functioning of land-related processes and the resolution of land-related disputes in India.

To Conclude:

With the knowledge of diverse land measurement units and the roles of land administration officers, individuals can confidently examine land-related processes in India’s real estate landscape.

By making informed decisions, individuals can contribute to the growth and development of the real estate sector, which plays a vital role in India’s economy.

As the real estate landscape continues to evolve, it is essential to stay informed and adapt to changes to ensure successful land transactions.

At Save Max, we prioritize accuracy and reliability in every piece of information we share, making us a trusted source for all your real estate needs. To connect with our team of experts or for any inquiries, please feel free to reach out to us. Start making informed real estate decisions today with Save Max Real Estate Brokerage.

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